18 Years - 65 Years
age of 18 to 65 years;
confirmed diagnosis of sickle cell anemia (HbSS and SB0 thalassemia);
non-crisis, “steady state” with no severe pain episodes requiring medical contact during the preceding 4 weeks;
ability to understand the requirements of the study and be willing to give informed consent.
bone marrow transplantation;
history of long-standing diabetes mellitus with suspicion for diabetic nephropathy as determined by a nephrologist;
known diagnosis of hepatitis B or C infection (patients will not be screened specifically for this during the study);
known HIV positive (patients will not be screened specifically for this);
history of cancer, except non-melanoma skin cancer;
pregnant or breastfeeding;
connective tissue disease such as SLE;
known glomerular disease unrelated to SCD;
patients with ESRD on chronic dialysis.